Immanence and Heresy

Balibar’s definition of heresy is a definition from the point of view of truth, as the “internal adversary” and logically insufferable “exception”. In other words, it is only according to the sense in which “the logical characteristic of truth” creates an enclosure that the adversary can be seen as “internal” to this enclosure, and only according to the sense in which this enclosure must be logically consistent that the heretic can be seen as “exceptional” with respect to this consistency. From this perspective, the heretic and the renegade are indistinguishable: both are identified by the characteristic of being in default of the truth. The renegade completes his renegacy by finally leaving the enclosure; the heretic is the one who remains inside, as an “internal adversary”, in spite of the fact that they truly, if still secretly, belong to the outside, the domain which is not regulated by the truth. For example: the “leftist” renegade continues to identify himself as a “leftist”, hangs out in “leftist circles”, speak in leftist code to leftist friends, whilst secretly harbouring un-leftist attachments, an orientation towards the outside of the leftist enclosure, where the external adversary rules in force. From time to time he will speak his “heresy”, and enjoy for a moment the drama of public contrariness; but it is only a matter of time before he finds the company of non-leftists more congenial, and abandons forever the commitments of his – in piquant retrospect – misguided youth…

Immanence is heretical (says Laruelle), but why? Because according to the point of view of immanence, the logical enclosure which belongs to truth is a kind of hallucination: its consistency is established according to a decision which cannot be justified in terms of immanence. It must find a way to present its self-justification, or justification in terms of its own truth, as underwritten by the Real; this is what Laruelle calls “auto-position” and “sufficiency”. It is as if – in this story, the story told by philosophy to itself – the Real were determined by the truth which it determines, in perfect accord and reciprocity, a relationship of reversibility or exchangeability. What is “heretical” here is to break this symmetry, to insist on the one-way and irreversible priority of the Real before the truth. This is a definition of heresy from the point of view of immanence, as the suspension of the truth’s authority to define its own logical enclosure and determine what is internal to it and consistent with it. The heretic according to immanence is not someone whose secret loyalty is to the “outside”, like the leftist renegade, but someone to whom the distinction between inside and outside, and the logical basis on which that distinction is made, has a limited salience: it no longer has the power to organise all “context” according to its own rubric, but must be seen according to a larger contexture which it does not control. Laruelle leaps directly to the Vision-in-One as a kind of (non)-context-of-all-contexts; he recontextualises philosophical decision within something that cannot be recognised as a context as such. This leap is a leap of gnosis, which relativises everything in a single stroke; but that is not the only way we can go. The imperative of navigation is that one simultaneously refuse to stay put within any given enclosure, and refuse the mystical revelation of the transience of all truths.